LED(Light-Emitting Diode) is a particular type of diode which converts electrical energy into light. They are currently the most efficient commercially available light source. Due to their outstanding performance, long life-span and dwindling cost LED Lights are gaining in popularity.
History of LEDs
The first LED bulb was developed in the 1960s. They were low powered bulbs that only produced light in the low, red frequencies of the spectrum.
The first blue LED was developed in 1994 by Shuji Nakamura of the Nichia Corporation. The brightness of bulb was increased significantly. The existence of blue and high-efficiency LEDs led to the development of the first ‘white LED’.
Later in 2014, Nakamura along with his two team members received a Nobel Prize in Physics for their great innovation.
Why are LEDs Becoming Popular Now?
It has long been known that LED lights are superior to Incandescent and fluorescent lighting types, outperforming them in nearly every aspect including:
– Low impact on the environment because they contain no mercury.
– Extremely low power consumption
– Little to no Start up delay
– Extended lifespan
Working Mechanism of LEDs
Light-emitting diodes are semiconductors. When electrons pass through such semiconductors, they emit photons which produce luminous light. It is also known as Electroluminescence.
The light produced from an LED bulb can be focused in a single direction as they work in the forward bias condition.
LED is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device as shown in the above figure.
This process releases energy in the form of photons which appears as visible light.
The color of light is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor and the material used in the semiconducting element.
Elements That Make Up an LED Bulb
The main materials used in making LEDs are:
Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) – Green, Blue, and Ultraviolet High-Brightness LEDs
Aluminum Gallium Indium Phosphide (AlGaInP) – Red, Yellow and Orange High-Brightness LEDs
Gallium Phosphide (GaP) – Green and Yellow LEDs
LEDs are up to 80% more efficient than traditional light sources. Combined with their lower maintenance costs and smaller environmental impact make them an ideal choice for home or business needs.
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